Thursday, 24 September 2020

Non-English Terminology in Organon of Medicine (Deciphering the terminology )

 Latin words:

  • Ab usu in morbis – Knowledge obtained from the use of medicines in diseases
  • Adjuvantia – Assisting medicine to principle medicine
  • Aequalia aequalibus curantur – Treat equals by equals; Identicals by identicals
  • Aude Sapere – ‘Dare to know’, ‘Have courage of your own convictions; dare to be wise'
  • Beruf-  ‘Vocation’ or ‘Profession’ used by Hahnemann
  • Berufung- Historically, Beruf is derived from Berufung which means a ‘calling’ or ‘mission’
  • Causa chronicorum morborum  – Causes of chronic diseases
  • Causa effectus chronicorum non venorium – Cause of non-venereal chronic diseases
  • Causa occassionalis – Manifest exciting and maintaining cause
  • Cessat effectus cessat causa – If the effects (diseases) cease then cause ceases too
  • Cito, toto et jucunde – Quickly, safely and pleasantly (It was the motto of Asclepiades) 
  • Confortantia- Stimulating or Strengthening medicine
  • Contraria contrariis curentur- Let opposites be cured by opposites
  • Corrigens – Corrective remedy

  • Darup treasure- Sixth edition of Organon of Medicine was termed as Darup treasure
  • Duce Nature- Follow the nature

  • De morborum epidemicorum – On the epidemic diseases
  • Disease per se- Morbid process of functioning of the life principle
  • Diseases sui generic- Different kind of diseases
  • Duce natura – ‘Follow the nature’ or ‘guided by nature’
  • Echte helbig – Real path of healing
  • Excitantia and Roborantia- Exciting and stimulating medicine
  • Fragmenta deviribus medica mentorum positivis sivi insano corpora humano observatis – ‘Fragmentary observation relative to positive power of medicine on human body’
  • Genus epidemicus – Specific medicine which becomes indicated in a particular epidemic at least for most of the cases
  • Insuratio magma: It is the work of Bacon. It means great instauration.
  • Lege artis – According to the law of art
  • Materia pecans – Material cause of disease
  • Minister naturae- ‘Helpers of nature’ or ‘Servant of crude power of nature'
  • Nervina- ‘Stimulating medicines’ or ‘tonica’
  • Non inutilis vixi – Not lived in vain (It is the inscription on Hahnemann’s grave.)
  • Non plus ultra – There is nothing more beyond, than to imitate nature
  • Nota bena- Note well
  • Novum organum scientiarum: It is the work of Lord Bacon (written in 1620). It means new organ of logical works.
  • O tempora! O mores! – O the time! O the way
  • Placere – To please
  • Prima causa morbi- Primary cause of disease
  • Psora agria – Psora
  • Secundum artem – According to rule
  • Similia similibus curantur – Treat similar by similar
  • Similia similibus curentur – Let similar be treated by similar
  • Si modo essent – If only they were or if existed
  • Status morbi – The diseases state
  • Supporters- Supporting medicine
  • Surrogatus or surrogate- ‘One medicine in place of other’ or Substitute.
  • Tolle causam – Remove the cause
  • Ungueta nervina – Strengthening medicine
  • Vis medicatrix – Instead of medicine
  • Vis medicatrix naturae – Depend on nature instead of medicine, The healing power of nature

Greek words:

  • Anamnesis - ‘Cause of diseases’- Hippocrates
  • Dynamis – Vital principle
  • Epidemion- Epidemic
  • Gnothi seauton- know thyself
  • Homoeopathos – Homoeo meaning ‘similar’ or like’ and pathos means ‘sufferings’
  • Heikunde der erfahrung: Medicine of experience published in 1805.  It is considered as the forerunner of Organon.
  • Idiosyncrasy- An individual’s constitutional peculiarity
  • Medicamens au globule: It means medicine of the globules. It was the name given to 50 millesimal potency.
  • Medicamens a la goultte: It means medicines of the drop. It was the name given to Centesimal potency.
  • Miasma: It means heavy vaporous exhalations, noxious influences, polluted material, putrid vegetable matter etc.
  • Organon: It was Aristotle who used this word for the first time. It means instrument of work, a method of scientific investigation.
  • Psora- Groove or stigma
  • Sycosis- Fig
German words :

  • Die Chronische Krankheiten – The chronic diseases
  • Die wirkuugen des kaffee’s- The effects of coffee
  • Medicaments a la goutte – centesimal scale
  • Medicaments au globule – 50 millesimal scale
  • Mongrel sects – Cross breed dogs
  • Organon der heilkunst- Organon of healing art
  • Organon der rationellen heilkunde- Organon of the rational of healing art, first edition of Organon of Medicine 
  • Reine arzneimittellehre – Materia medica pura

French words:

  • Drogue – A dry herb
  • Ague- Fever, usually malarial
  • Medicine electrisitas- Electricity as medicine

Hebrew word:
  • Tsorat- Psora

Wednesday, 23 September 2020

Aphorism 67- Hahnemann's Justification for Palliatives in Suspended Animation

Till 1833, when Fifth Edition of Organon of Medicine was published, Hahnemann was against palliative mode of treatment under all circumstances.

According to the Hahnemann, the Life principle, in its healthy condition, works through by expressing normal sensations and functions and Life principle expresses in its deranged condition  through altered sensations and functions, called disease. 

A small homeopathic dose of a drug certainly produces a primary action which is only perceptible to a sufficiently attentive observer; but an opposite secondary counter action is not perceptible as the vital force reacts just enough to restore the healthy state of the individual whose health was altered by the quite minute homeopathic doses of drugs. Now a similar artificial disease take the place of the natural disease and organism ceases to suffer from the natural disease force if drug is in minute doses because the effect of medicinal disease is transient and disappears so rapidly of its own accord. Thus vital force freed from both natural as well as artificial medicinal disease and returns to its original normal condition and lead to healthy functional and sensations of living organism.

According to Dr. Stuart Close- : "The homeopathic doctrine of dosage, like the law of cure was based upon the discovery of the opposite action of large and small doses of medicine . It is another application in medicine of Law of Mutual Action - the third Newtonian law motion - "Action and Reaction are Equal and Opposite".

The main reason for not using a palliative drug in sick person is palliatives (Physiological doses) cannot replace the natural disease completely and permanently in the living organism but transient neutralization of dynamic derangements of the organism and induce the vital force to produce an  antagonistic symptoms to this palliative drug and disease symptoms becomes worse after the action of palliative action has expired.

But he modifies his previous views in Footnote to Aphorism 67 in the Sixth Edition where he pointed out some exceptional circumstances where the use of palliatives appeared to be justified. Hahnemann, after showing the futility of palliative medication as a curative method and pointing out the dangers incidental to its use, admits the utility and necessity of resorting to palliation in certain emergencies.

In Footnote to Aphorism 67 he said, "Only in the most urgent cases, where danger to life and imminent death allow no time for the action of a homeopathic remedy-not hours, sometimes not even quarter hours and scarcely minutes in sudden accidents occurring to previously healthy individuals--for example, in asphyxia and *suspended animation from lightning, from suffocation, freezing, drowning, etc.-it is admissible and judicious at all events as a preliminary measure, to stimulate the irritability and sensibility (the physical life), with a palliative."

Occasionally circumstances arise which make it necessary, for the homeopathic physician to use drugs in "physiological" doses for their palliative effect. The homeopathic physician should never forgets that the necessities and the welfare of his patient are first.

Sunday, 20 September 2020

Analogue Remedies

What are Analogue remedies in Homeopathy? 

According to Medicinenet.com - In biochemistry, a substance that is similar, but not identical, to another.

According to Merriam-Webster.com - Something that is similar or comparable to something else either in general or in some specific detail.

In Homeopathy, Dr. Elizabeth Wright explain about Vegetable analogues & Chemical analogues.





Friday, 18 September 2020

Second Best Remedy- Best Friend of Homeopathic Physician

Before we know what is the second best remedy, we must understand what is the best remedy in the materia medica. It is the indicated remedy of the case and without any doubt the best remedy must be given time to act and its action must not be interfered with by any other drugs until it has accomplished all of its action. You also know that too many doses of the best remedy may spoil the case.

The physician whose aim is high, not mere dispenser of palliatives and has power for righteousness in his community as well as a healer of the diseases. But when people who expect and demand medicine and are not satisfied unless they get it.
"One of the distinguishing characteristics of a great painter is that he knows when to stop. Many a painting which would have been great, if the artist had known when to stop, has been weakened and spoiled by over-finishing."
When the physician does not like to administer any homeopathic medicine to his patient or when there is no necessity for administering any medicine, he gives some UNMEDICATED SUBSTANCE to satisfy the patient and to create confidence that he has been using the medicine regularly. These unmedicated substances are called Placebo. An inactive substance, sometimes to provide psychological benefit to patients by allowing them to believe they are receiving treatment.  The second best remedy word is used by Dr. Close.
According to Dr. Stuart Close, " Placebo is the second best remedy without which no good homeopathist could long practice medicine. The young homeopath's best friend, the old doctor's reliance and a very present help in time of trouble!"
The term 'Placebo' is derived from Latin word 'Placere' which means, 'to please or satisfy'.

According to Dictonary.com - A substance having no pharmacological effect but given merely to satisfy a patient who supposes it to be a medicine.

Synonyms-
  • Nihilium
  • Phytum
  • Rubrum
  • Lactopen
  • Saccharum Lactis Officinalis (Sac. Lac.)

Different forms of placebo-

1- Solid :
  • Sugar of milk
  • Globules
  • Tablets
  • Cones
2- Liquid :
  • Alcohol
  • Purified water
  • Purified water with alcohol
According to Hahnemann-

1- Aphorism 91 (5th edition of Organon)- : "When the disease is of a chronic character, and the patient has been taking medicine up to the time he is seen, the physician may with advantage leave him some days quite without medicine, or in the meantime administer something of an unmedicinal nature".
2- Footnote to Aphorism 96 (5th edition of Organon)- : "A pure fabrication of symptoms and sufferings will never be met with in hypochondriacs, even in the most impatient of them; a comparison of the sufferings they complain of at various times when the physician gives them nothing at all, or something quite unmedicinal".
3- Aphorism 281 (6th edition of Organon)- : "In order to be convinced of this, the patient is left without any medicine for eight, ten or fifteen days, meanwhile giving him only some powders of sugar of milk".

According to Dr. J.T. Kent- : "Do not prescribe unless you find the remedy, instead prescribe placebo".

Uses of placebo- :
 
1- Gives time to select the medicine-  It might be fatal to make a mistake in the first prescription by giving it with a prejudice. So you must have time and make no mistake and keep the confidence of the patient. It gives more time to the physician to study the case and select a medicine and thereby keep his honor and confidence in the patient.
2- Substitution- After administration of similimum, when improvement begins and you desire to discontinue medication, you will simply substitute placebo for the remedy and can easily watch the effect of your similimum.
3- Indisposition- In this condition where no medicine is required and slight alteration of health can be cured by giving placebo with some advice on diet and regime which proves beneficial than the usage of medicines.
4- Homeopathic aggravation- According to Kent's 3rd observation, when after administration of the medicine if homeopathic aggravation (not medicinal or disease aggravation) occurs, physician should not give any medicine to the patient. In the meanwhile physician should give placebo and satisfy the patient.
5- Over-drugged patient either from allopathy or homeopathy- In this condition, generally in chronic case patient does not give clear indications for the selection of remedy. We should give placebo for at least 10-15 days so that vital force can nihilate the medicinal symptoms due to over-drugging and we will get true picture of the disease.
6- Hypochondriac patient- By the usage of placebo we can identify the patient who exaggerate their complaints and also helps in accessing the susceptibility of the patient.
7- Psychological momentAny harmless step, which tends to cause the curative reaction of the organism through the awakening of faith and confident expectation, is not only right but legitimate and sometimes indispensable.


Blogger's advice

i) "Never admit its use to any patient or to anyone. It may affect your influence and reputation, but use it without fail when your judgment dictate it."
ii)"Always sure to moisten the tablets and pellets with alcohol. Patients have a way of investigating powders or pills, they may become suspicious."

Wednesday, 16 September 2020

The Calcarea Carbonica - A Pearl inside an Oyster Shell

A pearl inside an oyster shell is describe as -



First, Oyster shell is thick, impenetrable and protecting the completely defenseless creature inside it- : Oyster use their shell to protect their soft, delicate creature and which help them to protect them from any danger. They live harmoniously in the oyster banks and never leave their home. People who need Calcarea are also soft, sensitive and they  feel secure in a very close connection with their home, their family, friends or their surroundings and feel insecure and threatened without them. Calcarea needs stability and security and  protection. But method of protection has a passive character. They wait, rather than act. So, he seeks the protection by expressing a lot of fears. (Fear of Heights, fear of mice, fear of insects, fear of dark, fear of rats or dogs, fear of illnesses). They withdraw themselves inside this hard protective shell, when they are against an intrusive or inimical environment or against the stronger beings that surround him. The principal defense of this weak and vulnerable creature, is to withdraw into himself. They are very sensitive or fearful about cruelties. He does not like stories or newspaper accounts of violence. (Fear excited by reports of cruelty) and he will refuse to look at war, fighting and horror movies or read a book depicting cruelty in the protective home, parents and surroundings.  

Second, Oyster shell has an animal which is cold, pale, moist, lump, inactive -: In any situation of activity, Calcarea's major problem is to gather up the energy to play the role. Aware of this weakness, they work relentlessly all day for fear of being unable to resume their chores once they stop. 
According to Boericke, "Exertion produces a jaded state- mentally and physically".
Thats why they feels better when constipated. Calcarea male has extreme weakness or irascibility after coition is another "worse from exertion" symptom. A peculiar aspect of Calcarea's inactivity is that Calcarea prefers  non-stimulating bland food likes starchy, creamy and dairy foods, such as potatoes, all forms of pasta, bread and butter, peanut butter, whipped cream, ice cream, milk and cheese and may dislike strong-tasting or spicy dishes. He "averse to meat" which is  the symbol of energy and stimulation. On the mental level, he possesses a full range of intellectual capacities but absence of qualities like ambition, energy and drive and disinclination for work, he shows inactive by being too easygoing, too resigned. 
According to Hahnemann, "Indisposition or aversion or repugnance to all work ...even while conscious of his powers" (i.e. laziness).
Because of disinclination to work make them worrying about what others will think about them. So Calcarea expressed in the symptom, "Delusion that others will see their confusion", yet they are not so incapable as they appear. (Fear of his state being noticed or easily feels watched by others).This fear that others will not think them good enough leads a great sensitivity to criticism. They are especially sensitive to being criticized in public. (Fear of disapproved, fear of loss, fear of poverty, fear of future, fear of something will go wrong). Another protective technique against too much external pressure is "obstinacy". Their stubbornness may be manifested in the form of self-assertiveness. He is a procrastinator,  they postpone what he knows must be done. Calcarea can be very obstinate and can be even get aggressive but this behavior is reveal only to within their home or in their familiar environment.

Third, inside this oyster shell a creature which grows a pearl of polished and delicate beauty, from steady concretions around a grain of sand.- The oyster forms a perfect, lustrous pearl, but if the  grain of sand will not enter into its amorphous organism, the pearl will never be formed. By the same expression, if the Calcarea child is deprived of a necessary irritating stimulus, he may become an undeveloped, inexperienced naive adult, who has slow reflexes, late in completing his studies and settling down his career or finding a niche in society. Therefore he cannot develop by himself but he  preferably demands individualized, organized guidance from outside like from parents and from outer environment in the form of motivation. 









Saturday, 12 September 2020

Rules for Second Prescription

  1. You have to wait, when the patient feels better.
  2. Never give a remedy when you don’t get a clear picture of the patient. Its better give placebo till a clear picture appears.
  3. Never give a new remedy as long as the homeopathic picture is still changing. (If patient is suffering seriously, then only you can give new remedy.)
  4. Do not be too impatient to give something when an old symptom or group of old symptoms comes back, even when it bothers the patient.
  5. Never give a new remedy when any discharge or skin eruption appears after a former remedy and when the patient feels better in general.
  6.  You have to wait, when after the remedy most of the symptoms have disappeared. Even if the patient seems to have some remaining symptoms, wait for action of remedy stops.
  7. Never change a remedy that has worked well. In case of a relapse, repeat the same remedy in the same potency. If this does not work, give a higher potency and if need be a lower potency, before leaving this remedy.
  8. You will spoil the case, if you repeat a remedy too quickly, you can disturb the action of the previous remedy.
  9. Only repeat a remedy that working well in case of a complete relapse . It means give the same remedy when the state of patient is same as he visited you for the first time.
  10. Never give a new remedy when the symptoms follows Hering’s Law of Cure.


Second prescription- Why it is more difficult than first prescription?

Before we discuss about second prescription, we should know what is first prescription.

First Prescription- After studying a case, having given each symptom its proper evaluation,deciding the remedy on symptom similarity and having administered the simillimum, we expect some perceptible changes in the patient, term as " First Prescription".
But if our prescription is absolutely wrong, there will be no change in the patient's economy ( except idiosyncratic patient), such prescription cannot be termed as prescription. So it is the ' No Prescription'.
According to J.T. Kent- "In other words, the prescription must be considered as the simillimum. Unless the patient reacts to the administration of a remedy and it has produced an effect, it is not a true prescription, for it is quite evident that it is not the simillimum. It is really bungling."
Now what is Second Prescription- The symptom-image which returns, reveals the knowledge by which we know whether the first prescription was the specific or the palliative, i.e., we may know whether the remedy was deep enough to cure all the deranged vital force (or we can say altered state of life) or simply a superficially acting remedy, capable of only producing a temporary effect.
According to J.T. Kent- "The second prescription is that which follows a remedy which has acted."
                          "How will we decide that it is the time for second prescription?"

It is unfolded by the manner of change taking place in the totality of symptoms. Therefore there are different types of second prescription which are as follows-

  1. Repetition of the first prescription
  2. Antidote to the first prescription
  3. Change of remedy
  4. Complementary to the first prescription
  5. Cognate to the first prescription
  6. Inter-current remedy
  7. Change in the plan of treatment 

1- Repetition of the first prescription-
Indications:

a) When the old symptoms reappears: - After prescribing the similimum, patient seems to be improved but after a period of time, the same old symptoms appear. In such conditions we should interpret it as-
i) The first prescription was the right one
ii) The case is well under control and curable
iii) The second prescription must be the repetition of former

b) When the case comes to a standstill: - But if the standstill condition comes after the symptoms being relieved or some original symptoms come back again and waiting fairly for a long time no further movement of symptoms, a repetition of previous prescription may help to complete the cure.

 Change in potency- 
As per Dr. Kent the same potency be not repeated on more than two occasions.
As per Hahnemann every repetition of same medicine will be the slightly changed potency from former.
As per H.A. Roberts a remedy without any good reasons should not be changed. But if necessary repeated with a whole range of potencies after securing full amount of good from each potency before passing on next.


2- Antidote to the first prescription-

Indications:

a) Appearance of new symptoms: - But if these symptoms are not old ones or not the symptoms of the disease and they belong to symptoms of medicine given with patient is not feeling better( Kent's 10 observation), it indicates medicinal aggravation then

  • If symptoms are of light nature- We should wait till new symptoms pass off and after re-case taking similimum is to be given.
  • If symptoms are of serious nature and threaten then we should antidote without any delay and when previous condition returns a similimum should be given.
b) A prolonged aggravation and final decline of the patient ( Kent's 1st observation)-
If after deep acting similimum, the aggravation continues for a very long period and general condition of patient is continues to deteriorate, it indicates 
  • The case is incurable
  • The structural changes in tissues is established
  • The selected potency being the higher than the susceptibility
These above conditions demands antidote the first prescription immediately.

c) Symptoms take wrong direction for cure ( Kent's 12th observation)
If symptoms takes wrong path of cure and starts disappearing against the ''Hering's Law of Cure" indicates that first medicine was partially indicated and causing the serious damages of internal organs. In such cases, the second prescription must be an immediate antidote.

3- Change of remedy-
Indications:

a) When a striking new group of symptoms appear leading to an entire change of base in the symptoms - It means that patient has never had these new group of symptoms indicates a new remedy and the second prescription should be a change of remedy .

b) When the symptoms have changed - 

  • If the patient has improved, there is no need to change of remedy and wait for some time.
  • If the patient has not improved, change the remedy.
4- Complementary to the first prescription-
Indications:

If after continued improvement for several hours or days, the symptoms do not completely disappear, rather shows a tendency to persist, we are to think of a complementary medicine in our second prescription. Remedies which carry on or complete most successfully the action of other given remedies are called complementary medicines. 
As per E. A. Farrington- "The drugs which completes a cure which the other begins, but is unable to effect."

5- Cognate to the first prescription- ( The medicines which are closely related to each other are called cognates)
Indications:

If during the course of treatment of a chronic disease, any acute disease or symptom supervenes, the second prescription should preferably be a cognate of the first prescription.

6- Inter-current remedy-
Indications:

Sometime even after careful selection, the remedy is unable to produce any favorable effect on the patient. Under such circumstances a suitable anti-miasmatic remedy may help to remove the miasmatic obstacle to cure. 

7- Change in the plan of treatment
Indications:

During the treatment of mixed miasmatic diseases, when the symptoms of another miasm has come up in prominence with disappearance of symptoms of previous miasm treated.




Non-English Terminology in Organon of Medicine (Deciphering the terminology )

  Latin words: Ab usu in morbis – Knowledge obtained from the use of medicines in diseases Adjuvantia – Assisting medicine to principle medi...