Saturday, 6 March 2021

Discovery of Homeopathy

Whole of the 18th century in Europe marked by plethora of theories and hypothesis concerning the nature of disease and its causation

Uncertainty and lack of any fixed principle of healing disappointed

Hahnemann gave up medical practice


Devoted himself to the translation of great medical classics


In 1790 he engaged in translating ‘Cullen’s Materia Medica’ from English to German language


Attention was arrested by the remark “Cinchona bark cure malaria because of it’s bitterness and tonic effects on stomach


The explanation appeared unsatisfactory to him


To discover its truth, Hahnemann himself ingested 4 drachms of Cinchona bark juice, twice daily for few days


He was attacked by the symptoms very similar to the symptoms of malaria fever


The unexpected result setup his mind a new train of thought


He conducted similar experiments on himself and other individuals with other medicines whose curative action has been well established


He led to the inference that medicines cure diseases only because they can produce similar symptoms in healthy individuals


So, the basic theory of Homeopathy established as, ‘The Law of Similia’ means Like cures Like


"Discovery of Homeopathy was not accidental but methodical."


Saturday, 3 October 2020

Some points of Criticism of Hahnemannian Homeopathy by Dr. Richard Hughes ( Hughesian Homeopathy)

Homeopathy is a therapeutic method, an instrument for the selection of the most suitable remedy for each case.

 According to Hughes, "In adopting this method of Hahnemann, we do not necessarily becomes followers of his; we are homeopathists, not Hahnemannians. The steam engine of today is not altogether that of Watt."

  • Hughes rejected Hahnemann’s concept of the vital force, the Psora theory and how homeopathic medicine works. He was also not satisfied about the potency.
  • Hughes denied the scientific background of Homeopathy. He said," Homoeopathy is the grave of science". The science has no existence here and it dies and is buried. Homeopathy is essentially an art and not a science. It was pragmatic and anti-mystical. It is based on the doctrine SIMILIA SIMILIBUS CURANTUR ( not CURENTUR)
  • Hughes compares Vital Force with Protoplasmic doctrine of life which contradicts the term force. According to him every part is equally alive and independently active and  the unity of whole being secured only by the common circulation and nerves.

  • Hughes denied the Law of Similia as a central key as Hahnemann claimed it as a rule of thumb for therapeutic method. He said it often gave the right medicine but  not invariably. For example Hughes thought that allopathy was more effective in some disorders like angina.

  • Hughes believed that medicine should be chosen not only on subjective symptoms but also on the basis of their known pathological effects on human beings & even on animals.

  • Hughes insisted that you should consider the time sequence in which symptoms occur when finding the correct remedy. One should find a remedy with same sequence of symptoms similar to developed disease symptom pattern.
  • Beside his criticism, Hughes attempted to revise & purify the Homoeopathic materia medica, which resulted in his writing  titled 'Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy' in 1884-91 in 4 volumes. Hughes’ intention was to include all the reliable information available in his day apart from that in Hahnemann’s writings (It was a joint enterprise between the British Homoeopathic Society  and the American Institute of Homoeopathy).

  • While compiling the Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy, Hughes decided to eliminate all the proving symptoms that are proved at the potencies above 6C. He said, " It is necessary to understand the pathology created by the remedies on the organic level and it is the pathology level which has to be treated".

  • The homeopath is more acquainted with the Physiology and Pathology, the better for himself and for those in whose aid he works.

  • According to Hughes, Master's thought had changed for worse as evolved over the years. Hughes criticized the rule of 30 potency, which should be used for all purposes, had fossilized Homeopathy most undesirably.
  • He also emphasized that proving's of ‘The Chronic Diseases’ could not have been carried out in the same way as those of ‘The Materia Medica Pura’. So accurate descriptions of the effects of the new medicines could not be relied on.
  • Richard Hughes has opinion that when considering the similarity between the drug and disease action, there should be similarity between generic, specific and individual action of both drug and disease.

1) Generic similarity- The drug should definitely be capable of altering state of health and again the alteration should be in the same intensity and nature as the sickness to which the patient is suffering. In fever the drug should be febrigenic and in inflammation the drug should be an irritant.

2) Specific similarity- Specific morbid state originate as the gradual result of the interaction between the organism and its environment. So specific similarity can be found out by comparing the various common ailments in diseases & drug action by its Seat of action, Kind of action, Nature of the etiology & modifying cause, Character of pain & other sensations and Concomitants. The drug which has these five points are known as pathological similimum.

3) Individual similarity-  Individual similarity can be found by Physical constitution, Mental & moral state of the patient, Conditions of aggravations & ameliorations, Sides of the body and Time of the day at which symptoms occur.

  • According to Hughes, 'Why fundamental cause is useful if causation known? and if medicine that is suitable, not only to the existing symptom-group, but to the miasm also.

  • After explaining Psora theory, Hahnemann rejected all the enquiry into causes the proximate causes. I can only say what it purports to be and what it really is. 7/8ths of the non venereal diseases seemed to have some analogous miasmatic origin. In medical literature, he found various diseases had a history of suppressing cutaneous eruptions among which scabies was main cause. Also this doctrine rests upon the ground of morbid diathesis and is especially associated with cutaneous disorder.
  • Why The Antipsorics are numerous but the Antisyphilitics and Antisycotics are only 3 in all.
  • The bunch of medicines are antipsoric but are not to be used  as temporary intercurrents in the treatment of chronic non-veneral disease just as Mercury only to be given in syphilis and Thuja and Nitric acid are to be our sole hope in sycosis.

Thursday, 24 September 2020

Non-English Terminology in Organon of Medicine (Deciphering the terminology )

 Latin words:

  • Ab usu in morbis – Knowledge obtained from the use of medicines in diseases
  • Adjuvantia – Assisting medicine to principle medicine
  • Aequalia aequalibus curantur – Treat equals by equals; Identicals by identicals
  • Aude Sapere – ‘Dare to know’, ‘Have courage of your own convictions; dare to be wise'
  • Beruf-  ‘Vocation’ or ‘Profession’ used by Hahnemann
  • Berufung- Historically, Beruf is derived from Berufung which means a ‘calling’ or ‘mission’
  • Causa chronicorum morborum  – Causes of chronic diseases
  • Causa effectus chronicorum non venorium – Cause of non-venereal chronic diseases
  • Causa occassionalis – Manifest exciting and maintaining cause
  • Cessat effectus cessat causa – If the effects (diseases) cease then cause ceases too
  • Cito, toto et jucunde – Quickly, safely and pleasantly (It was the motto of Asclepiades) 
  • Confortantia- Stimulating or Strengthening medicine
  • Contraria contrariis curentur- Let opposites be cured by opposites
  • Corrigens – Corrective remedy

  • Darup treasure- Sixth edition of Organon of Medicine was termed as Darup treasure
  • Duce Nature- Follow the nature

  • De morborum epidemicorum – On the epidemic diseases
  • Disease per se- Morbid process of functioning of the life principle
  • Diseases sui generic- Different kind of diseases
  • Duce natura – ‘Follow the nature’ or ‘guided by nature’
  • Echte helbig – Real path of healing
  • Excitantia and Roborantia- Exciting and stimulating medicine
  • Fragmenta deviribus medica mentorum positivis sivi insano corpora humano observatis – ‘Fragmentary observation relative to positive power of medicine on human body’
  • Genus epidemicus – Specific medicine which becomes indicated in a particular epidemic at least for most of the cases
  • Insuratio magma: It is the work of Bacon. It means great instauration.
  • Lege artis – According to the law of art
  • Materia pecans – Material cause of disease
  • Minister naturae- ‘Helpers of nature’ or ‘Servant of crude power of nature'
  • Nervina- ‘Stimulating medicines’ or ‘tonica’
  • Non inutilis vixi – Not lived in vain (It is the inscription on Hahnemann’s grave.)
  • Non plus ultra – There is nothing more beyond, than to imitate nature
  • Nota bena- Note well
  • Novum organum scientiarum: It is the work of Lord Bacon (written in 1620). It means new organ of logical works.
  • O tempora! O mores! – O the time! O the way
  • Placere – To please
  • Prima causa morbi- Primary cause of disease
  • Psora agria – Psora
  • Secundum artem – According to rule
  • Similia similibus curantur – Treat similar by similar
  • Similia similibus curentur – Let similar be treated by similar
  • Si modo essent – If only they were or if existed
  • Status morbi – The diseases state
  • Supporters- Supporting medicine
  • Surrogatus or surrogate- ‘One medicine in place of other’ or Substitute.
  • Tolle causam – Remove the cause
  • Ungueta nervina – Strengthening medicine
  • Vis medicatrix – Instead of medicine
  • Vis medicatrix naturae – Depend on nature instead of medicine, The healing power of nature

Greek words:

  • Anamnesis - ‘Cause of diseases’- Hippocrates
  • Dynamis – Vital principle
  • Epidemion- Epidemic
  • Gnothi seauton- know thyself
  • Homoeopathos – Homoeo meaning ‘similar’ or like’ and pathos means ‘sufferings’
  • Heikunde der erfahrung: Medicine of experience published in 1805.  It is considered as the forerunner of Organon.
  • Idiosyncrasy- An individual’s constitutional peculiarity
  • Medicamens au globule: It means medicine of the globules. It was the name given to 50 millesimal potency.
  • Medicamens a la goultte: It means medicines of the drop. It was the name given to Centesimal potency.
  • Miasma: It means heavy vaporous exhalations, noxious influences, polluted material, putrid vegetable matter etc.
  • Organon: It was Aristotle who used this word for the first time. It means instrument of work, a method of scientific investigation.
  • Psora- Groove or stigma
  • Sycosis- Fig
German words :

  • Die Chronische Krankheiten – The chronic diseases
  • Die wirkuugen des kaffee’s- The effects of coffee
  • Medicaments a la goutte – centesimal scale
  • Medicaments au globule – 50 millesimal scale
  • Mongrel sects – Cross breed dogs
  • Organon der heilkunst- Organon of healing art
  • Organon der rationellen heilkunde- Organon of the rational of healing art, first edition of Organon of Medicine 
  • Reine arzneimittellehre – Materia medica pura

French words:

  • Drogue – A dry herb
  • Ague- Fever, usually malarial
  • Medicine electrisitas- Electricity as medicine

Hebrew word:
  • Tsorat- Psora

Wednesday, 23 September 2020

Aphorism 67- Hahnemann's Justification for Palliatives in Suspended Animation

Till 1833, when Fifth Edition of Organon of Medicine was published, Hahnemann was against palliative mode of treatment under all circumstances.

According to the Hahnemann, the Life principle, in its healthy condition, works through by expressing normal sensations and functions and Life principle expresses in its deranged condition  through altered sensations and functions, called disease. 

A small homeopathic dose of a drug certainly produces a primary action which is only perceptible to a sufficiently attentive observer; but an opposite secondary counter action is not perceptible as the vital force reacts just enough to restore the healthy state of the individual whose health was altered by the quite minute homeopathic doses of drugs. Now a similar artificial disease take the place of the natural disease and organism ceases to suffer from the natural disease force if drug is in minute doses because the effect of medicinal disease is transient and disappears so rapidly of its own accord. Thus vital force freed from both natural as well as artificial medicinal disease and returns to its original normal condition and lead to healthy functional and sensations of living organism.

According to Dr. Stuart Close- : "The homeopathic doctrine of dosage, like the law of cure was based upon the discovery of the opposite action of large and small doses of medicine . It is another application in medicine of Law of Mutual Action - the third Newtonian law motion - "Action and Reaction are Equal and Opposite".

The main reason for not using a palliative drug in sick person is palliatives (Physiological doses) cannot replace the natural disease completely and permanently in the living organism but transient neutralization of dynamic derangements of the organism and induce the vital force to produce an  antagonistic symptoms to this palliative drug and disease symptoms becomes worse after the action of palliative action has expired.

But he modifies his previous views in Footnote to Aphorism 67 in the Sixth Edition where he pointed out some exceptional circumstances where the use of palliatives appeared to be justified. Hahnemann, after showing the futility of palliative medication as a curative method and pointing out the dangers incidental to its use, admits the utility and necessity of resorting to palliation in certain emergencies.

In Footnote to Aphorism 67 he said, "Only in the most urgent cases, where danger to life and imminent death allow no time for the action of a homeopathic remedy-not hours, sometimes not even quarter hours and scarcely minutes in sudden accidents occurring to previously healthy individuals--for example, in asphyxia and *suspended animation from lightning, from suffocation, freezing, drowning, etc.-it is admissible and judicious at all events as a preliminary measure, to stimulate the irritability and sensibility (the physical life), with a palliative."

Occasionally circumstances arise which make it necessary, for the homeopathic physician to use drugs in "physiological" doses for their palliative effect. The homeopathic physician should never forgets that the necessities and the welfare of his patient are first.

Sunday, 20 September 2020

Analogue Remedies

What are Analogue remedies in Homeopathy? 

According to - In biochemistry, a substance that is similar, but not identical, to another.

According to - Something that is similar or comparable to something else either in general or in some specific detail.

In Homeopathy, Dr. Elizabeth Wright explain about Vegetable analogues & Chemical analogues.

Friday, 18 September 2020

Second Best Remedy- Best Friend of Homeopathic Physician

Before we know what is the second best remedy, we must understand what is the best remedy in the materia medica. It is the indicated remedy of the case and without any doubt the best remedy must be given time to act and its action must not be interfered with by any other drugs until it has accomplished all of its action. You also know that too many doses of the best remedy may spoil the case.

The physician whose aim is high, not mere dispenser of palliatives and has power for righteousness in his community as well as a healer of the diseases. But when people who expect and demand medicine and are not satisfied unless they get it.
"One of the distinguishing characteristics of a great painter is that he knows when to stop. Many a painting which would have been great, if the artist had known when to stop, has been weakened and spoiled by over-finishing."
When the physician does not like to administer any homeopathic medicine to his patient or when there is no necessity for administering any medicine, he gives some UNMEDICATED SUBSTANCE to satisfy the patient and to create confidence that he has been using the medicine regularly. These unmedicated substances are called Placebo. An inactive substance, sometimes to provide psychological benefit to patients by allowing them to believe they are receiving treatment.  The second best remedy word is used by Dr. Close.
According to Dr. Stuart Close, " Placebo is the second best remedy without which no good homeopathist could long practice medicine. The young homeopath's best friend, the old doctor's reliance and a very present help in time of trouble!"
The term 'Placebo' is derived from Latin word 'Placere' which means, 'to please or satisfy'.

According to - A substance having no pharmacological effect but given merely to satisfy a patient who supposes it to be a medicine.

  • Nihilium
  • Phytum
  • Rubrum
  • Lactopen
  • Saccharum Lactis Officinalis (Sac. Lac.)

Different forms of placebo-

1- Solid :
  • Sugar of milk
  • Globules
  • Tablets
  • Cones
2- Liquid :
  • Alcohol
  • Purified water
  • Purified water with alcohol
According to Hahnemann-

1- Aphorism 91 (5th edition of Organon)- : "When the disease is of a chronic character, and the patient has been taking medicine up to the time he is seen, the physician may with advantage leave him some days quite without medicine, or in the meantime administer something of an unmedicinal nature".
2- Footnote to Aphorism 96 (5th edition of Organon)- : "A pure fabrication of symptoms and sufferings will never be met with in hypochondriacs, even in the most impatient of them; a comparison of the sufferings they complain of at various times when the physician gives them nothing at all, or something quite unmedicinal".
3- Aphorism 281 (6th edition of Organon)- : "In order to be convinced of this, the patient is left without any medicine for eight, ten or fifteen days, meanwhile giving him only some powders of sugar of milk".

According to Dr. J.T. Kent- : "Do not prescribe unless you find the remedy, instead prescribe placebo".

Uses of placebo- :
1- Gives time to select the medicine-  It might be fatal to make a mistake in the first prescription by giving it with a prejudice. So you must have time and make no mistake and keep the confidence of the patient. It gives more time to the physician to study the case and select a medicine and thereby keep his honor and confidence in the patient.
2- Substitution- After administration of similimum, when improvement begins and you desire to discontinue medication, you will simply substitute placebo for the remedy and can easily watch the effect of your similimum.
3- Indisposition- In this condition where no medicine is required and slight alteration of health can be cured by giving placebo with some advice on diet and regime which proves beneficial than the usage of medicines.
4- Homeopathic aggravation- According to Kent's 3rd observation, when after administration of the medicine if homeopathic aggravation (not medicinal or disease aggravation) occurs, physician should not give any medicine to the patient. In the meanwhile physician should give placebo and satisfy the patient.
5- Over-drugged patient either from allopathy or homeopathy- In this condition, generally in chronic case patient does not give clear indications for the selection of remedy. We should give placebo for at least 10-15 days so that vital force can nihilate the medicinal symptoms due to over-drugging and we will get true picture of the disease.
6- Hypochondriac patient- By the usage of placebo we can identify the patient who exaggerate their complaints and also helps in accessing the susceptibility of the patient.
7- Psychological momentAny harmless step, which tends to cause the curative reaction of the organism through the awakening of faith and confident expectation, is not only right but legitimate and sometimes indispensable.

Blogger's advice

i) "Never admit its use to any patient or to anyone. It may affect your influence and reputation, but use it without fail when your judgment dictate it."
ii)"Always sure to moisten the tablets and pellets with alcohol. Patients have a way of investigating powders or pills, they may become suspicious."

Wednesday, 16 September 2020

The Calcarea Carbonica - A Pearl inside an Oyster Shell

A pearl inside an oyster shell is describe as -

First, Oyster shell is thick, impenetrable and protecting the completely defenseless creature inside it- : Oyster use their shell to protect their soft, delicate creature and which help them to protect them from any danger. They live harmoniously in the oyster banks and never leave their home. People who need Calcarea are also soft, sensitive and they  feel secure in a very close connection with their home, their family, friends or their surroundings and feel insecure and threatened without them. Calcarea needs stability and security and  protection. But method of protection has a passive character. They wait, rather than act. So, he seeks the protection by expressing a lot of fears. (Fear of Heights, fear of mice, fear of insects, fear of dark, fear of rats or dogs, fear of illnesses). They withdraw themselves inside this hard protective shell, when they are against an intrusive or inimical environment or against the stronger beings that surround him. The principal defense of this weak and vulnerable creature, is to withdraw into himself. They are very sensitive or fearful about cruelties. He does not like stories or newspaper accounts of violence. (Fear excited by reports of cruelty) and he will refuse to look at war, fighting and horror movies or read a book depicting cruelty in the protective home, parents and surroundings.  

Second, Oyster shell has an animal which is cold, pale, moist, lump, inactive -: In any situation of activity, Calcarea's major problem is to gather up the energy to play the role. Aware of this weakness, they work relentlessly all day for fear of being unable to resume their chores once they stop. 
According to Boericke, "Exertion produces a jaded state- mentally and physically".
Thats why they feels better when constipated. Calcarea male has extreme weakness or irascibility after coition is another "worse from exertion" symptom. A peculiar aspect of Calcarea's inactivity is that Calcarea prefers  non-stimulating bland food likes starchy, creamy and dairy foods, such as potatoes, all forms of pasta, bread and butter, peanut butter, whipped cream, ice cream, milk and cheese and may dislike strong-tasting or spicy dishes. He "averse to meat" which is  the symbol of energy and stimulation. On the mental level, he possesses a full range of intellectual capacities but absence of qualities like ambition, energy and drive and disinclination for work, he shows inactive by being too easygoing, too resigned. 
According to Hahnemann, "Indisposition or aversion or repugnance to all work ...even while conscious of his powers" (i.e. laziness).
Because of disinclination to work make them worrying about what others will think about them. So Calcarea expressed in the symptom, "Delusion that others will see their confusion", yet they are not so incapable as they appear. (Fear of his state being noticed or easily feels watched by others).This fear that others will not think them good enough leads a great sensitivity to criticism. They are especially sensitive to being criticized in public. (Fear of disapproved, fear of loss, fear of poverty, fear of future, fear of something will go wrong). Another protective technique against too much external pressure is "obstinacy". Their stubbornness may be manifested in the form of self-assertiveness. He is a procrastinator,  they postpone what he knows must be done. Calcarea can be very obstinate and can be even get aggressive but this behavior is reveal only to within their home or in their familiar environment.

Third, inside this oyster shell a creature which grows a pearl of polished and delicate beauty, from steady concretions around a grain of sand.- The oyster forms a perfect, lustrous pearl, but if the  grain of sand will not enter into its amorphous organism, the pearl will never be formed. By the same expression, if the Calcarea child is deprived of a necessary irritating stimulus, he may become an undeveloped, inexperienced naive adult, who has slow reflexes, late in completing his studies and settling down his career or finding a niche in society. Therefore he cannot develop by himself but he  preferably demands individualized, organized guidance from outside like from parents and from outer environment in the form of motivation. 

Discovery of Homeopathy

Whole of the 18 th century in Europe marked by plethora of theories and hypothesis concerning the nature of disease and its causation ⇩...